2018年上半年全国大学英语四六级考试于6月16日进行,新浪教育24小时全程关注,为你带来第一手四六级考试资讯。以下为英语六级选词填空源文:

  2018年上半年全国大学英语四六级考试于6月16日进行,新浪教育24小时全程关注,为你带来第一手四六级考试资讯。以下为英语六级阅读真题:

  Five Fascinating Details About the Media Mogul Who May Have Written
“Mary Had a Little Lamb”

  Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)

  Everywhere that Sarah Josepha Hale went, success was sure to go

  Section A

  By Erin Blakemore

  Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks。
You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of
choices given in a word bank following the passage。 Read the passage
through carefully before making your choices。 Each choice in the bank
is identified by a letter。 Please mark the corresponding letter for
each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre。 You
may not use any of the words in the bank more than once。

  smithsonian.com

  Did Sarah Josepha Hale write “Mary’s Little Lamb,” the eternal
nursery rhyme (儿歌) about girl named Mary with a stubborn lamb? This
is still disputed, but it’s clear that the woman 26 for writing it was
one of America’s most fascinating 27 。 In honor of the poem publication
on May 24,1830, here’s more about the 28 author’s life。

  May 24, 2016

  Hale wasn’t just a writer, she was also a 29 social advocate, and
she was particularly 30 with an ideal New England, which she associated
with abundant Thanksgiving meals that she claimed had “a deep moral
influence,” she began a nationwide 31 to have a national holiday
declared that would bring families together while celebrating the 32
festivals。 In 1863, after 17 years of advocacy including letters to
five presidents, Hale got it。 President Abraham Lincoln during the
Civil War, issued a __33__ setting aside the last Thursday in
November for the holiday。

  Did Sarah Josepha Hale write “Mary’s Lamb,” the eternal nursery
rhyme about a girl named Mary with a stubborn lamb companion? The jury
is still out—but it’s clear that the woman reputed for writing it was
one of America’s most fascinating characters。 In honor of the poem’s
publication on May 24, 1830, here’s more about the supposed author’s
life:

  The true authorship of “Mary’s Little Lamb” is disputed。 According
to New England Historical Society, Hale wrote only one part of the
poem, but claimed authorship。 Regardless of the author, it seems that
the poem was __34__by a real event。 When young Mary Sawyer was
followed to school by a lamb in 1816, it caused some problems。 A
bystander named John Roulstone wrote a poem about the event, then, at
some point, Hale herself seems to have helped write it。 However, if a
1916 piece by her great-niece is to be trusted, Hale claimed for the
__35__of her life that “Some other people pretended that someone
else wrote the poem”。

  She was one of America’s most powerful media moguls。。。

  A) campaign I) proclamation

  Forget Oprah—in the 19th century, there was one queen of media,
and her name was Sarah Josepha Hale。 She first plunged into national
prominence as one of the nation’s first published women novelists and
poets。 Her book Northwood: Or, Life North and South advocated that
slaves be relocated to Liberia rather than continue to toil in the U.S。
It attracted the attention of a Boston reverend who invited the recently
widowed Hale to edit the Ladies’ Magazine, a new magazine aimed at
fashionable women。

  B) career J) rectified

  In 1837, Hale’s magazine was acquired by Louis Godey, who also
owned the popular Lady’s Book, and Godey’s Lady’s Book, the new
publication that emerged, quickly became America’s most influential
magazine。 At its height, the magazine had over 150,000 subscribers,
was widely read by men and women, and featured some of the nation’s
best literary talent, like Edgar Allan Poe and Harriet Beecher Stowe。

  C) characters K) reputed

  Known as much for its fashion plates and dress patterns as its
uplifting poetry and edifying articles, the magazine was in print for
another 70 years。 Hale herself was at its helm for 40—enough time to
become the most influential arbiter of fashion, culture and American
female taste of her time。 She used her influence not just to tell women
what to wear, but how to think。

  D) features L) rest

  …but Hale didn’t think women should vote。

  E) fierce M) supposed

  Was Hale a feminist? The term is so laden with modern meaning that
it’s hard to apply to a powerful woman like Hale。 But though Hale
supported everything from women’s education to employment, she though
that women’s powers were intended to be used subtly。 Not only did she
oppose women’s suffrage, but she thought that women were better off
wielding what she called a “secret, silent influence” on men instead of
entering politics on their own。

  F) inspired N) traditional

  The magazine juggernaut that Hale helmed impressed similar values on
women, emphasizing the importance of a separate sphere in which women
could reign over domestic issues and affect the behaviors of others
through their own deportment。 But though Hale’s magazine reinforced
gender stereotypes, historians have argued that the “separate sphere”
it upheld was actually a place where women could experience what little
power and autonomy was available to them during the 19th century。

  G) latter O) versatile

  She fought a fierce battle to make Thanksgiving a national holiday

  H) obsessed

  Hale wasn’t just a writer: She was also a fierce social advocate。
Born in New Hampshire, she was particularly obsessed with an idealized
idea of New England, which she associated with abundant Thanksgiving
meals that she claimed had “a deep moral influence。” Using the platform
provided by Godey’s Lady’s Book, she began a national campaign to have
a national holiday declared that would bring families together while
celebrating the glorious festivals of yore。 No matter that the first
Thanksgiving was celebrated by a privileged few in a time of rampant
starvation and the suppression of Native Americans—Hale wanted her
Thanksgiving。 And in 1863, after 17 years of advocacy including
letters to five presidents, Hale got it。 President Abraham Lincoln,
embroiled in the Civil War, issued a proclamation setting aside the
last Thursday in November for the holiday。

  Section B

  She once preserved a Boston monument with an epic craft fair

  Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with
ten statements attached to it。 Each statement contains information
given in one of the paragraphs。 Identify the paragraph from which the
information is derived。 You may choose a paragraph more than once。
Each paragraph is marked with a letter。 Answer the question by marking
the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2。

  Though Hale’s legacy today revolves around putting turkey and mashed
potatoes on tables everywhere, her interests extended to other New
England icons。 In 1840, Hale organized the mother of all craft fairs
at Boston’s Quincy Market。 The seven-day fair raised a whopping
$30,000 to finish the building of an ornate obelisk to commemorate the
Battle of Bunker Hill。 That’s the equivalent of fundraising nearly
$800,000 today。

  Peer Pressure Has a Positive Side

  Her nursery rhyme was inspired by actual events

  A。 Parents of teenagers often view their children‘s friends with
something like suspicion。 They worry that the adolescent peer group has
the power to push its members into behavior that is foolish and even
dangerous。 Such wariness is well founded: statistics show, for
example, that a teenage driver with a same-age passenger in the car is
at higher risk of a fatal crash than an adolescent driving alone or with
an adult。

  The true authorship of “Mary’s Little Lamb” is disputed。 According
to the New England Historical Society, Hale wrote only part of the
poem, but claimed authorship。 The poem was included in Hale’s book
Poems for our Children, which she intended “to inculcate moral truths
and virtuous sentiments” to families and children。

  B。 In a 2005 study, psychologist Laurence Steinberg of Temple
University and his co-author, psychologist Margo Gardner, then at
Temple, divided 306 people into three age groups: young adolescents,
with a mean age of 14; older adolescents, with a mean age of 19; and
adults, aged 24 and older。 Subjects played a computerized driving game
in which the player must avoid crashing into a wall that materializes,
without warning, on the roadway。 Steinberg and Gardner randomly
assigned some participants to play alone or with two same-age peers
looking on。

  Regardless of the author, it seems that the poem was inspired by a
real event。 When young Mary Sawyer was followed to school by a lamb in
1816, it caused a commotion。 A bystander named John Roulstone wrote a
doggerel about the events。 The verse was so popular that eventually
Mary sold the lamb’s wool for a higher price based on its fame。 It
earned $60, which was used to help rebuild Boston’s Old South Church。
At some point, Hale herself seems to have co-opted the verse—though,
if a 1916 piece by her great-niece is to be trusted, Hale called
fraud, claiming that “some other people pretended that some one else
wrote [the poem]” for the rest of her life。

  C。 Older adolescents scored about 50 percent higher on an index of
risky driving when their peers were in the room—and the driving of early
adolescents was fully twice as reckless when other young teens were
around。 In contrast, adults behaved in similar ways regardless of
whether they were on their own or observed by others。 “The presence of
peers makes adolescents and youth, but not adults, more likely to take
risks,” Steinberg and Gardner concluded。

  来源:新东方

  D。 Yet in the years following the publication of this study,
Steinberg began to believe that this interpretation did not capture the
whole picture。 As he and other researchers examined the question of why
teens were more apt to take risks in the company of other teenagers,
they came to suspect that a crowd‘s influence need not always be
negative。 Now some experts are proposing that we should take advantage
of the teen brain’s keen sensitivity to the presence of friends and
leverage it to improve education。

  E。 In a 2011 study, Steinberg and his colleagues turned to
functional MRI (磁共振) to investigate how the presence of peers
affects the activity in the adolescent brain。 They scanned the brains
of 40 teens and adults who were playing a virtual driving game designed
to test whether players would brake at a yellow light or speed on
through the crossroad。

  F。 The brains of teenagers, but not adults, showed greater
activity in two regions associated with rewards when they were being
observed by same-age peers than when alone。 In other words, rewards
are more intense for teens when they are with peers, which motivates
them to pursue higher-risk experiences that might bring a big payoff
(such as the thrill of just making the light before it turns red)。
But Steinberg suspected this tendency could also have its advantages。
In his latest experiment, published online in August, Steinberg and
his colleagues used a computerized version of a card game called the
Iowa Gambling Task to investigate how the presence of peers affects the
way young people gather and apply information。

  G。 The results: Teens who played the Iowa Gambling Task under the
eyes of fellow adolescents engaged in more exploratory behavior,
learned faster from both positive and negative outcomes, and achieved
better performance on the task than those who played in solitude。 “What
our study suggests is that teenagers learn more quickly and more
effectively when their peers are present than when they‘re on their
own,” Steinberg says。 And this finding could have important
implications for how we think about educating adolescents。

  H。 Matthew D。 Lieberman, a social cognitive neuroscientist at the
University of California, Los Angeles, and author of the 2013 book
Social: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Connect, suspects that the human
brain is especially adept at learning socially salient information。 He
points to a classic 2004 study in which psychologists at Dartmouth
College and Harvard University used functional MRI to track brain
activity in 17 young men as they listened to descriptions of people
while concentrating on either socially relevant cues (for example,
trying to form an impression of a person based on the description) or
more socially neutral information (such as noting the order of details
in the description)。 The descriptions were the same in each
condition, but people could better remember these statements when given
a social motivation。

  I。 The study also found that when subjects thought about and later
recalled descriptions in terms of their informational content, regions
associated with factual memory, such as the medial temporal lobe,
became active。 But thinking about or remembering descriptions in terms
of their social meaning activated the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex—part
of the brain‘s social network—even as traditional memory regions
registered low levels of activity。 More recently, as he reported in a
2012 review, Lieberman has discovered that this region may be part of a
distinct network involved in socially motivated learning and memory。
Such findings, he says, suggest that “this network can be called on to
process and store the kind of information taught in school—potentially
giving students access to a range of untapped mental powers。”

  J。 If humans are generally geared to recall details about one
another, this pattern is probably even more powerful among teenagers
who are hyperattentive to social minutiae: who is in, who is out, who
likes whom, who is mad at whom。 Their penchant for social drama is
not—or not only—a way of distracting themselves from their schoolwork or
of driving adults crazy。 It is actually a neurological(神经的)
sensitivity, initiated by hormonal changes。 Evolutionarily speaking,
people in this age group are at a stage in which they can prepare to
find a mate and start their own family while separating from parents and
striking out on their own。 To do this successfully, their brain
prompts them to think and even obsess about others。

  K。 Yet our schools focus primarily on students as individual
entities。 What would happen if educators instead took advantage of the
fact that teens are powerfully compelled to think in social terms? In
Social, Lieberman lays out a number of ways to do so。 History and
English could be presented through the lens of the psychological drives
of the people involved。 One could therefore present Napoleon in terms
of his desire to impress or Churchill in terms of his lonely
melancholy。 Less inherently interpersonal subjects, such as math,
could acquire a social aspect through team problem solving and peer
tutoring。 Research shows that when we absorb information in order to
teach it to someone else, we learn it more accurately and deeply,
perhaps in part because we are engaging our social cognition。

  L。 And although anxious parents may not welcome the notion,
educators could turn adolescent recklessness to academic ends。 “Risk
taking in an educational context is a vital skill that enables progress
and creativity,” wrote Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, a cognitive
neuroscientist at University College London, in a review published last
year。 Yet, she noted, many young people are especially risk averse at
school—afraid that one low test score or mediocre grade could cost them
a spot at a selective university。 We should assure such students that
risk, and even peer pressure, can be a good thing—as long as it
happens in the classroom and not the car。

  36。 It is thought probable that the human brain is particularly
good at picking-up socially important information。

  37。 It can be concluded from experiment that the presence of peers
increases risk-taking by adolescents and youth。

  38。 Students should be told that risk XXX classroom can be
something positive。

  39。 The XXX a mate and getting married accounts for adolescents’
greater attention to social interactions。

  40。 According to Steinberg, the presence of peers increases the
speed and effectiveness of teenagers’ leaning。

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