PSG 2

  Passage seven(Stricter Traffic Law can Prevent Accidents)

  Passage 2 美国高速公路发展历史

  From the health point of view we are living in a marvelous age. We
are immunized from birth against many of the most dangerous diseases. A
large number of once fatal illnesses can now be cured by modern drugs
and surgery. It is almost certain that one day remedies will be found
for the most stubborn remaining diseases. The expectation of life has
increased enormously. But though the possibility of living a long and
happy life is greater than ever before, every day we witness the
incredible slaughter of men, women and children on the roads. Man versus
the motor-car ! It is a never-ending battle which man is losing.
Thousands of people the world over are killed or horribly killed each
year and we are quietly sitting back and letting it happen。

  The United States has one of the best highway systems in the world。
Interstate highways connect just about every large and mid-sized city in
the country。 Did u ever wonder why such a complete system of excellent
roads exists? For an answer, u would have to go back to the early
1920s。 In those years just after World War 1, the military wanted to
build an American highway system for national defense such a system
could if necessary move troops quickly from one area to another。 It
could also get people out of cities in danger of being bombed,
so-called roads of national importance were designated, but they were
mostly small country roads。 In 1944 Congress passed a bill to upgrade
the system but did not fund the plan right away。 In the 1950s, the
plan began to become a reality。 Over 25 billion dollars was
appropriated by Congress and construction began on about 40000 miles of
new roads。 The idea was to connect the new system to existing
expressways and freeways。 And though the system was built mostly to
make car travel easier, defense was not forgotten。 For instance,
highway overpasses had to be high enough to allow trailers carrying
military missiles to pass under them。 By 1974,this system was mostly
completed a few additional roads would come later。 Quick and easy
travel between all parts of the country was now possible。

  It has been rightly said that when a man is sitting behind a
steering wheel, his car becomes the extension of his personality. There
is no doubt that the motor-car often brings out a man’s very worst
qualities. People who are normally quiet and pleasant may become
unrecognizable when they are behind a steering-wheel. They swear, they
are ill-mannered and aggressive, willful as two-years-olds and utterly
selfish. All their hidden frustrations, disappointments and jealousies
seem to be brought to the surface by the act of driving。

  Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard。

  The surprising thing is that society smiles so benignly on the
motorist and seems to condone his behaviour. Everything is done for his
convenience. Cities are allowed to become almost uninhabitable because
of heavy tragic; towns are made ugly by huge car parks; the countryside
is desecrated by road networks; and the mass annual slaughter becomes
nothing more than a statistic, to be conveniently forgotten。

  Q19。 What does the speaker say about the American highway system。

  It is high time a world code were created to reduce this senseless
waste of human life. With regard to driving, the laws of some countries
are notoriously lax and even the strictest are not strict enough. A code
which was universally accepted could only have a dramatically beneficial
effect on the accident rate. Here are a few examples of some the things
that might be done. The driving test should be standardized and made far
more difficult than it is; all the drivers should be made to take a test
every three years or so; the age at which young people are allowed to
drive any vehicle should be raised to at least 21; all vehicles should
be put through stringent annual tests for safety. Even the smallest
amount of alcohol in the blood can impair a person’s driving ability.
Present drinking and driving laws (where they exist) should be mad much
stricter. Maximum and minimum speed limits should be imposed on all
roads. Governments should lay down safety specifications for
manufacturers, as has been done in the USA. All advertising stressing
power and performance should be banned. These measures may sound
inordinately harsh. But surely nothing should be considered as to severe
if tit results in reducing the annual toll of human life. After all, the
world is for human beings, not motor-cars。

  Q20。 What was the original purpose of building a highway system。

  1.       The main idea of this passage is

  Q21。 When was the interstate highway system mostly completed。

  [A] Traffic accidents are mainly caused by motorists。

  美国拥有世界上最好的公路系统之一。州际高速公路连接全国所有大中城市。你有没有想过为什么这样一个完善的道路系统存在?作为答案,你将不得不回到20年代初。在第一次世界大战后的那些年里,军方想要建立一个美国的国防高速公路系统,这样一个系统可以在必要时迅速将部队从一个地区搬到另一个地区。它也可以让人们离开有被炸的危险的城市,所谓的具有国家重要性的道路被指定,但它们大多是小乡村道路。
1944年国会通过了一项法案来升级该系统,但没有立即为该计划提供资金。在20世纪50年代,该计划开始成为现实。国会拨款超过250亿美元,新建道路约40000英里。这个想法是将新系统连接到现有的高速公路和高速公路上。虽然该系统的建造主要是为了让汽车出行更容易,但防御措施并没有被遗忘。例如,高速公路天桥必须足够高,以允许携带军用导弹的拖车经过它们。到1974年,这个系统基本完成了,稍后会有一些额外的道路。现在全国各地之间快速而轻松的旅行已成为可能。

  [B] Thousands of people the world over are killed each year。

  Q19。 演讲者对美国高速公路系统有何评论?

  [C] The laws of some countries about driving are too lax。

  Q20。 建立公路系统的最初目的是什么?

  [D] Only stricter traffic laws can prevent accidents。

  Q21。 州际公路系统何时大部分完工?

  2.       What does the author think of society toward motorists?

  PSG 3

  [A] Society smiles on the motorists。

  Passage 3 智能方向盘

  [B] Huge car parks are built in the cities and towns。

  Texting while driving was listed as a major cause of road deaths
among young Americans back in 2013。 A recent study said that 40 percent
of American teens claimed to have been in a car when the driver used a
cell phone in a way that put people in danger。 This sounds like a
widespread disease but it‘s one that technology may now help to cure。
T.J。 Evert, a 20 –year-old inventor, has come up with a novel
solution that could easily put texting drivers on notice。 It’s called
Smart Wheel and it‘s designed to fit over the steering wheel of most
standard vehicles to track whether or not the driver has two hands on
the wheel at all times。 Evert’s invention warns the drivers with a
light and a sound when they hold the wheel with one hand only。 But as
soon as they place the other hand back on the wheel the light turns back
to green and the sound stops。 It also watches for what’s called “close
by hands” where both hands are close together near the top of the
wheel, so the driver can type with both thumbs and drive at the same
time。 All the data smart wheel collects is also sent to a connected
app, so any parents who install smart wheel can keep track of the
teen‘s driving habits。 If they try to remove or damage the cover,
that’s reported as well。

  [C] Victims of accidents are nothing。

  Q22。 What is a major cause of road deaths among young Americans?

  [D] Society condones their rude driving。

  Q23。 What is Smart Wheel?

  3.       Why does the author say:’ his car becomes the extension of
his personality?’

  Q24。 What happens if the driver has one hand on the wheel?

  [A] Driving can show his real self。

  Q25。 How do parents keep track of their teen‘s driving habits?

  [B] Driving can show the other part of his personality。

  开车时发短信被列为2013年年轻美国人死于道路的主要原因。最近的一项研究表明,40%的美国青少年声称在驾驶员使用手机时让人危险。这听起来像是一种普遍的疾病,但技术现在可能有助于治愈。
T.J。
Evert是一位20岁的发明家,他提出了一种新颖的解决方案,可以很容易地通知发短信的司机。它被称为智能车轮,它被设计用于安装在大多数标准车辆的方向盘上,以跟踪司机是否始终有两只手在车轮上。
Evert的发明仅在单手握住车轮时用光线和声音警告司机。但只要他们将另一只手放回车轮上,灯光就会变回绿色,声音就会停止。它还监视所谓的“靠近手”,在靠近车轮顶部的地方双手靠得很近,因此驾驶者可以同时用拇指和驱动器敲击。所有数据智能车轮收集的信息也会发送到连接的应用程序,因此安装智能车轮的父母可以跟踪青少年的驾驶习惯。如果他们试图移除或损坏封面,那也是有报道的。

  [C] Driving can bring out his character。

  Q22。 美国年轻人死于道路的主要原因是什么? Q23。 什么是智能车轮?
Q24。 如果驾驶员一只手放在车轮上会发生什么? Q25。
父母如何跟踪他们青少年的驾驶习惯?

  [D] His car embodies his temper。

  [答案整理:有道考神团队]

  4.       Which of the followings is NOT mentioned as a way against
traffic accidents?

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