【短对话总评】

■ 宋佳 整理

  这次英语四级听力短对话总体难度适中,主要考点仍然集中在对日常生活的理解上。一共8
题,其中第1题考察事实细节,3、4、6是对句子内涵的理解,2和5分别是对地点和原因的推断,7、8是对事实细节的推断。大家在做听力时,不要纠结在一两个生词上,一定要注意把握对话人的隐含义,才能做出准确推断。

Part I WritingNothing Succeeds Without a Strong Will Nothing runs
smoothly in our life. To achieve things successfully, a strong will is
essential. Life is like a Marathon. Many people can’t get to the
terminal. This is not because they are lack of vitality but because
their will of success is not strong enough. To take quitting smoking as
an example, some regard it as a piece of cake. They make up their minds
to quit it in the morning, but in the evening they feel that the smell
of cigarettes is tempting. Their throats are sore, their mouths are
thirsty, and their hands are shaking. After the painful mental struggle,
they tell themselves that “One cigarette is enough. Just take one, and
the next day I will quit it.” By doing this, they surrender to their
weak will. In the end, they have quitted smoking “a hundred times”, but
in no time they succeed. Just like quitting smoking, nothing succeeds
without a strong will. To be successful in one’s life, a strong will
means that you know where you go and you will persist on the road you
choose. Undoubtedly success belongs to those who overcome their weak
will and who hang in there until the last minute.Nothing Succeeds
Without a Strong Will As we have read from above, quitting-smoking seems
easy, but in reality it is rarely achieved. There is something provoking
and interesting in this paradox, just because sword does not wear the
stone as dripping water does. The ability to do something over and over
again in a short time may imply its easiness, but in a long run, a
lifetime maybe, things turn out to be quite the opposite. Also, as is
often the case, one may have obtained all the tools and opportunities to
achieve something, but in the end they still fail due to the will
shortage. So how could we avoid the dilemma? Here is the prime condition
of success: will and perseverance. Concentrate you energy, thought and
mind exclusively on the business in which you are engaged, hang on in
there and be patient, for, as Emerson put it, no one can cheat you out
of your ultimate success but yourself.

  答案及难词解释:

Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)1.A) sticks to them
in their daily life第一题的答案就在全文第一句。关键词是not only…. But
also…. ,关键句是The key to integrity is consistency–not only setting
high personal standards for oneself (honesty, responsibility, respect
for others, fairness) but also living up to those standards each day.
这里的live up to 和 选项里的 stick to 属于同义替换。2.C) It is the basis
of mutual trust关键词是personal and professional,关键句是Trust is
essential in any important relationship, whether personal or
professional. Who can trust someone who is dishonest or unfair? Thus,
integrity must be one of our most important
goals.结合紧接着的问句,我们很容易锁定trust这个选项。3.A. To ensure we
make responsible choices.关键词是identify the risks,关键句是Making
ethical decisions is a critical part of avoiding future problems. We
must learn to recognize risks, because if we can’t see the risks we’re
taking, we can’t make responsible choices. 所以答案很明显是A。4.B. it is
claimed to be unintentional.关键词是misconduct,关键句是But the fact
that such a violation is “unintentional” does not excuse the misconduct.
和原文意义高度一致的,就是这个unintentional。因此答案是:B. it is
claimed to be unintentional.5.A. Avoid making excuses.关键词是fool
oneself,关键句是To avoid fooling yourself, watch out for excuses and
try this test这里的watch out for 和
选项里的avoid属于同义替换。所以答案是A。6.C. value immediate benefits
most.关键词是regret later,关键句是Those who take risks they later
regret usually focus on immediate benefits (“what’s in it for
me”)。很明显,选项 value immediate benefits most 是正确答案。这里的value
和 focus on 属于同义替换。7.A) pay more dearly关键词是get
caught,关键句是Those who don’t get caught pay an even higher price.
这里的higher price 和选项里的more dearly
属于同义替换。所以答案是A。8.steal a grade关键词:care about关键句:I’m
not interested in what you’re trying to teach; all I care about is
stealing a grade, regardless of the effect on others.”9.honesty and good
faith关键词是rely on,关键句是We must rely on the honesty and good faith
of others every day.10.the Watergate scandal关键词是political and
economic leaders,关键句是Watergate, have undermined the faith of many
Americans in the integrity of political and economic leaders and society
as a whole.

  1. B .Use a ladder to help her reach the tea。

Part III Listening ComprehensionSection A11.B) Go and ask the
staff.这是一道事实细节题。从对话中可知,女士搞不清楚列车时刻表,男士建议她去售票窗口咨询。ticket
window售票窗口。12.A) He fell asleep in the middle of the TV
program.这是道推理判断题,考查男士的言下之意以及虚拟语气。could have
done意为本可以做某事,但未做。从对话中可知,男士确实回家看了电视节目,但是他说道:I
wish I could have stayed awake long enough to see the whole thing.
我真希望自己当时能再晚点睡着,这样我就可以看完整场节目了。说明他没有看完整场节目就睡着了。13.B)
She is worried about missing her
flight.这是道场景题,略有难度。刚开始,我们还无法很快判断出该对话发生的场景,很多同学一听到airport可能会误以为对话发生在机场,但如果我们继续听下去,就会发现,该对话应该发生在出租车上,因为女士说了句“请选择最快的路”,而男士说“因为有球赛,所以到处都交通拥堵”可以帮助我们再次确认对话发生的场景。选项A不对,原文是说要挑the
fastest way哪怕不是the most direct
way;选项C也不准确,才刚上车,并没有拥堵,司机只是提前说明因为球赛会碰到拥堵;选项D错误,女士是为了赶去乘飞机的,而不是去看球赛。14.A)
At a
restaurant这是道场景题,较为简单。从对话中可知,女士希望向男士推荐一道菜,从首句中即可推断出该对话最有可能发生在餐馆中,男士说,他过敏,不吃贝壳类海鲜,可以帮助我们再次确认对话发生的场景。15.A)
He is being interviewed for a job.这是较为简单的细节推理题。 从position,
company这几个关键词中,我们就可以快速判断出此题的场景为面试,因此男士应该正在接受一场面试。
C选项错误,他想要销售经理的职位,但并不表示他本身就是销售经理。16.B) The
man is unlikely to move out of the
dormitory.这是推理判断题,询问女士的言下之意。最后一句,女士表示“你改变主意的话,我不会觉得奇怪”,可知,男士不太可能搬出宿舍。A选项是个干扰项,虽然该选项看上去意思和B选项差不多,但对话中并没有提到男士想找一个更安静的地方,他想搬离寝室,是为了更多的个人空间。17.D)
The woman is going to make her topic more
focused.这是推理判断题。从对话中可知,男士希望女士缩小主题的范围,女士回答“你是对的。”说明女士会采纳男士的建议,缩小主题。18.B)
They didn’t quite enjoy their last
picnic.这是推理判断题。beat一词是个难点,beat本意有“打败”的意思,这次的野餐打败了上次,即这次比上次好,下文中,男士说“上次我们不得不呆在室内,但这次天气不错。”可以再次确认他们不喜欢上次的野餐,因此,正确答案为B。Conversation
One19. What do we learn about the man from the conversation?B)He
prefers hot weather to cold
weather.本题为推断题。根据文章大意可推断得出。整篇文章中,分别有两处暗示信息,一处是男士说,“Swedish
people always complain that when they visit England, the houses are cold
even in the good
winter.”,瑞典人在冬天去拜访英格兰时,会抱怨英格兰室温太冷。另一处是男士在谈到冬天天气时,说道:“It
is sometimes a bit
depressing.”长时间寒冷的天气令人沮丧。因此可推断得出,男士更喜欢hot
weather,热天气。所以,答案为:He prefers hot weather to cold
weather.20. What do Swedish people complain about when they visit
England in winter?B)The cold
houses.对话中,当男士介绍瑞典的极寒天气时,谈到只要穿暖,出门很暖,而室内更暖和,为了强调这一观点,男士继续说道:“Swedish
people always complain that when they visit England, the houses are cold
even in the good
winter.”说是瑞典人在冬天去拜访英格兰时,会抱怨英格兰室温太冷。所以,答案为:The
cold houses.21. How does the man describe the short hour of daylight
around Christmas in Sweden?C)Depressing.女士问:“And what about the
darkness?”男士答道:“around Christmas time there’s only one hour of
daylight, so you really looks forward to the
spring.”临近圣诞节的时候,每天仅有一小时为白天,所以人们都非常向往春天,希望春天快点到来。然后,进一步强调性地评论道:“It
is sometimes a bit
depressing.”有时候真有点令人沮丧。因此,本题答案为:Depressing.22. What
does the man say about the Swedish people?B)They work hard and play
hard.男士在谈到瑞典的极昼天气时,着重谈了瑞典人在极昼天气的工作情况,并进一步对瑞典人的工作习惯进行了评价。男士说道:“They’d
like to work hard, but play hard,
too.”瑞典人既能在工作时努力工作,又能在能玩时拼命玩。所以,本题答案为:They
work hard and play hard.Conversation Two23. What was the man’s major at
university?B)French.细节题。在第二轮对话中,女士问,“what was your
educational background?”你是什么教育背景,男士回答说:“I did a degree in
French at Nottingham.”
我在诺丁汉大学攻读了法语学位,所以男士的专业是French。24. What was the
man’s job in secondary schools?C)careers guidance.细节题。在说完“I did
a degree in French at Nottingham.”之后,男士又接着说“After that, I did
careers guidance in secondary schools.”因此,此题的答案应为:careers
guidance。25. What attracted the man to Nottingham University?B)Its
pleasant environment.细节题。女士问:“Is there any reason why you went
to Nottingham
University?”你去诺丁汉大学是出于什么原因?男士在回答中说到,诺丁汉是我心中理想大学之一。紧接着他就说道:“And
I like the look of it.”还进一步补充说明道:“ The campus is just
beautiful.
”因此,男士是因被其优雅环境所吸引而选择去诺丁汉大学。所以,本题的答案为:Its
pleasant environment.

  点评:事实细节题,主要听男士的意见Why don’t you use the ladder.
strain v。表示拉伸,扭伤 strain your shoulder 拉伤肩膀

Section BPassage One26. What did Obcamp’s speech focus on?C) The art of
Japanese brush painting27. Why do Japanese listeners sometimes close
their eyes while listening to a speech?B) To enhance concentration.28.
What does the speaker try to explain?A) How listeners in different
cultures show respect.Passage Two29. What is Chris’s main responsibility
at Taxlong Company? B) Buying and maintain equipment.30. What problem
did Chris encounter in his Division?D)Two of his employees committed
theft.31. What does Chris hope for in the near future?B)Advancement to a
higher position.32 What do we learn about Kim from the passage?D) She is
competing with Chris for the new job.Passage Three33. Why are proverbs
so important?A)They help us see the important values of a culture.34.
According to the speaker what happens to some proverbs with the passage
of time?B) The values they reflect may change.35. What do we learn from
the study of proverbs from around the world?暂缺

  2. D. Outside an art gallery。

Section cCompound Dictation

  点评:推理判断题,从女士的“exhibition”与男士的“favorite
painter”中推断出。

Our lives are woven together. As much as I enjoy my own company, I no longer imagine I can get through
a single day much less all my life completely on my own. Even if I am on vacation in the mountains, I am eating food
someone else has grown, living in a house someone else has built,
wearing clothes someone else has sewn
from cloth woven by others, using electricity someone else is distributing to my
house. Evidence of interdependence is
everywhere; we are on this journey
together. As I was growing up, I remember being
carefully taught that independence not interdependence was
everything. “Make your own way”,” Stand on your own two feet” or
my mother’s favorite remark when I was face-to-face with consequences of
some action: Now that you’ve made your bed, lie on it. Total
independence is a dominant thing in our culture. I imagine that what my parents were trying to teach me
was to take responsibilities for my actions and my choices. But
the teaching was shaped by our cultural imagines. And instead, I grew up
believing that I was supposed to be totally independent and consequently
became very reluctant to ask for help. I would
do almost anything not to be a burden, and not require any help from
anybody.

  3. B. She does not quite agree with what the man said。

Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)Section A47 growth48
stable49 challenges50 certainly51 role52 combined53 significant54
included55 comprise56 solutionsSection BPassage One57. C encourage boys
to express their emotions freely58. A perform relatively better59. C It
fails to give boys the attention they need60. A teaching can be tailored
to suit the characteristics of boys61. C They have sharper visionPassage
Two62. C It makes all the hard work worthwhile.63. D Disputes over money
may ruin a relationship.64. A conflicts between couples tend to rise65.
D men and women view money in different ways.66. C discuss money matters
to maintain a healthy relationship.

  点评:推理判断题,从女士的评价中可以看出。

Part V
Cloze67.reveals68.staff69.while70.shortages71.surveyed72.private73.concerned74.recruit75.As76.for77.intensify78.technical79.priority80.subjects81.if82.rate83.particular84.highlighted85.workforce86.where

  evaluation n. 表示评估价值 ;an unfair evaluation 有失公正的评价;

67.reveals第一段提出话题,“据一项最新调查显示,现在的雇主们害怕他们雇不到符合要求的毕业生”,launch意思为“发起一场运动”,submit意为“提交,服从”,generate生成,reveal透露,揭露,显示。这里根据段意,reveal最合适。68.staff根据句意,基本有一半的组织机构告诉调查者他们在努力寻找具有四个方面才能的职员。这里partners,audience,
officials显然不符合题意。69.while这里和前面已经叙述的事实构成并列,“同时,更多公司预测,接下来的三年他们都将会遭遇雇员四缺现象”,因此排除其他三项。选while。70.shortages由第二段句首struggling可判断,机构组织寻找这些人才非常不易,那么这种人才显然是不够的,短缺的。absence是表示“缺席,不在”,不能描述短缺,因此排除。此题的另一个关键是确定experience的词性,动词。71.surveyed第三段用一句话简介经过工业联盟调查了69个行业和组织,首先排除D和C,search是指搜查;细查某处以搜寻某人或某物,搜索;而survey是指调查某部分人的行为、意见等,符合题意。72.private根据上一题的意思,调查在公共和私人部门中展开,后面一句的together暗示and后面的这个空是和“公共的”对立的,因此填private。73.concerned第四段描写了这个调查的具体情况。有一半人…,这里缺少动词,confront一般和with连用,conform
符合,遵照,confuse
使混乱,使困惑,这里根据上下文的意思,雇主们都担心这种现象的发生,因此选concerned,
be concerned
担心的,烦恼的,忧虑的。74.recruit本题考查词义辨析,三分之一的被调查者坦言他们可能顾不到符合相应资质的雇员,只有recruit符合题意。75.As根据句子结构判断,前半句是一个伴随状语,“随着…的深入进行,…需求越来越强”,而不是条件状语或让步状语。76.for这里考查介词搭配。这里侧重于描述执行进展的计划的目的,选for。77.intensify本题考查词义辨析。根据前文,这种需求是不断增加的,intensify
增强,强化,变激烈;dominate指在…中占主导地位,这里并没有给出一个具体的范围,不符合句意。enforce
实施,执行;stretch
伸展。78.technical本题比较简单,属于送分题。前卖第二段已经指出在四个方面技能欠缺,选项中显然只有technical符合文意。79.priority这里考查短语固定搭配。make…a
top priority
让…成为首要任务,当务之急。80.subjects这里鼓励年轻人学习科学相关的学科,从倒数第二段也可判断。academy
学院,研究院; procedure 步骤,程序,thought
思想,不符题意,排除。81.if这里考查考生对前后两个完整的句子的关系的理解,主句中的would是一个虚拟语气的标志词,据此代入选项if,通读上下文,符合题意之后确定。82.rate词义辨析题。rate评定某人、某事物的价值;order
命令,整理;discuss 讨论,论述,observe
观察,遵守。根据文意,雇主们认为A-levels中价值最低的学科是心理学和社会学,因此选rate。83.particular文章指出现在雇主们需要的是具备Stem四方面素质的人才,因此许多雇主们不赞成对某一特殊学科的专业学位,而非typical典型的,general一般的,或者是积极的positive。84.highlighted词义辨析题。根据最后一句,该研究“强调”
对…的担忧,
focus一般和on连用,其余两项意义不符。85.workforce词义辨析题。“提高英国劳动力的基本技能”,masses
民众,faculty 全体教员,community
社区,团体;整篇文章都在讨论就业和雇佣,显然选workforce。86.where考查定语关系副词。这个定语从句完整,由此判断缺少关系副词,首先排除A,B两个关系代词,再根据意思排除why。

  4. C. Doris fixed up some of the book shelves。

Part VI Translation87. Charity groups organized various activities to
raise money for the survivors of the earthquake.
(为地震幸存者筹款)本题考察动词raise的用法。raise money
表示“筹款”。同时考生要注意survivor 的拼写。88. Linda couldn’t have
received my e-mail (不可能收到我的电子邮件), otherwise, she could have
replied.本题考察混合型虚拟语气。otherwise提示我们句子后半句是与过去事实相反,因此用could+have+过去分词。句子前半句是在陈述一种事实,从句子后半句could
have
+过去分词我们可以推断前面“没有收到我的电子邮件”也是在发生在过去,且对现在产生了影响,因此这里用现在完成时,could
have +过去分词。89. It’s my mother who/that keeps encouraging me not to
lose heart (一直鼓励我不要灰心) when I have difficulties in my
study.本题考察了强调句型和动词encourage的搭配。①强调句型it’s … that/who…
②encourage sb. (not) to do sth. 鼓励某人做某事。90. The publishing house
has to consider the popularity of this novel.
(考虑这本小说的受欢迎程度)。本题考察了“考虑”的表达,可以用动词consider,也可以用词组take…
into consideration。同时考生要注意名词popularity (受欢迎程度)
的拼写。91. It’s wrong to define happiness only by
money.(仅仅以金钱来定义幸福)本题考察了“定义”的表达,为define。

  点评:推理判断题,从男士的“I got Doris to do some of
them。”推断出答案。

  注意shelf 复数形式是shelves

  5. D. He has found a better position。

  点评:事实细节题,主要听男生的陈述 “I’ve been offered a much better
position with another firm”

  firm在这里解释为:公司,企业。

  6. A. They should finish the work as soon as possible。

  点评:推理判断题,从男士的“But I think we should get it over with
this weekend”可以得出。

  7. D. The furniture the man bought is inexpensive。

  点评:事实细节题,从男士的描述“dirt cheap”中可以得出。

  dirt cheap 表示非常便宜。furnish v. 表示布置;陈设 n. furniture
家具。

  8. B. The woman is waiting for a call。

  【总评】长对话的两篇文章难度适中。本次考试的7题统一在考察同学们对于对话中一些细节的把握与单词词组的同义替换。在做题时,同学们如果能够按照顺序原则进行题目的预读,对文章的内容进行预判,那么做题不会太困难。

  Conversation 1:

  9. A. She had a job interview to attend。

  点评:事实细节题。关键听取原文中“It’s just that she submitted a job
application yesterday and the company asked her in for an interview
today”。

  10. C. Submit her roommate’s assignment。

  点评:事实细节题加单词的同义替换。关键听取原文中“I’m calling to see
whether it would be OK if I gave you her essay。”

  11. A. Where Dr. Ellis’s office is located。

  点评:事实细节题。关键听取原文中“And Dr. Ellis, one more thing,
could you tell me where your office is?”

  Conversation 2:

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